Apple Pandowdy
4 tart apples (like Granny Smith)
1/2 cup molasses
2 Tbsp. butter
biscuit dough
1/2 tsp. cinnamon
Core and slice apples and put them in a greased pie dish. Sprinkle with cinnamon, drizzle on molasses and dot with butter. Cover with biscuit dough rolled to about 1/2 inch in thickness. Cut vents so steam can escape. Bake at 375 degrees for 30 minutes. Serve hot cutting squares of biscuit as a base for the fruit mixture. Serve with whipped cream sprinkled with nutmeg.
Instead of rolling out the dough, drop it from a spoon over the filling. This allows the gooey sauce to bubble up around the dough.

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Bacon Dumplings (From Domestic Cookery by Elizabeth E. Ley printed 1856)

Cut slices of cooked bacon, and pepper them; roll out crust a for apple dumplings; slice some potatoes very thin, and put them in the crust with the meat; close them up, and let them boil fast an hour; when done, take them out carefully with a ladle.

Baked Beans
As with many other foods, baked beans of the 1860's were not as sweet as they are today. Civil War soldiers on both sides had baked beans for breakfast when the opportunity arose. They were cooked over or in the campfire all night. It was not often, except during winter, that an army unit could plan to be in the same camp long enough to cook beans fresh during the day, nor would they have been likely to have the saleratus (baking soda) to soften the beans while on the march.
Water ¼ cup molasses
3 cups dried navy or pea beans 3 small onions, cut in chunks
1 tsp. saleratus (baking soda) 2 green peppers, cut in strips
¼ to ½ lb. salt pork
The night before cooking, put beans in saucepan or kettle to soak overnight in water to cover generously (a quart or more). Drain the next morning and refill kettle with water; simmer five minutes. Stir in soda to dissolve. Continue to simmer for about 40 minutes, then test beans for tenderness.
Drain liquid off the tender beans and pour in 5 cups fresh water. Return to simmer, adding salt pork. In 30 minutes pour off extra liquid (save for bean soup or to add later to beans)
Grease a casserole by rubbing with salt pork; leave salt pork in pan. Prepare vegetables and stir into beans. Put mixture in casserole with salt pork. Drizzle ¼ cup molasses over top and add bean water to cover.
Beans can be baked at 250F for 8 hours or at 350F for 4 hours . You may need to add additional bean water so the beans do not dry out. Serve with a small pitcher of molasses.

Spruce Beer (the Emigrant's Handbook 1855)
Take twenty two quarts of water, and two quarts of molasses; a table-spoonful of ginger, one fourth ounce essence of spruce, and one pint of yeast - stir well together, let it stand overnight, and bottle for use. It should be kept in a cool place in warm weather. This will be found a good and healthy drink at all seasons of the year, but more so for summer season.

Minute Beer (the Emigrant's Handbook 1855)
Which is to be made in such quantities as wanted for immediate use. Take as may be wanted, say two quarts; four large spoonsful of molasses, same quantity of good vinegar, and half a spoonsful of fine ginger; mix these well toghert in the water; then to this mixture add half of a large spoonful of saleratus (baking soda) in powder, and stir and drink when in a state of effervescence. This will be found not only a delicious drink in warm weather, but also a healthy beverage.

Bread Pudding

This was another way to use stale and dry bread. It well illustrates the old belief, "Waste not, want not."
Stale bread Pinch of cinnamon
Milk Spoonful of rose-water or lemon-brandy
3 eggs 1 tea-cupful molasses or sugar
Pinch of salt Raisins
4 eggs
Crumble the bread the night before you want to serve it in the morning and soak overnight in milk. In the morning, beat the eggs with the bread and add salt. Tie it up in a bag, or in a pan that will exclude every drop of water. Boil it about an hour or a little more. When tied in a bag, no pudding should be put into the pot till the water boils.


Flour 2 Cup
Baking Powder 3 tsp.
Salt 1 tsp.
Shortening ¼ Cup
Milk ¾ Cup
Measure flour, baking powder & salt into a bowl. Cut in shortening thoroughly, until mixture looks like meal. Stir in almost all the milk. If dough is not pliable, just add enough milk to make a soft, puffy, easy to roll dough. Round up dough on a lightly powered surface. Knead 20-25 times (about ½ minute). Roll out dough about ½ thick. Cut out biscuits, lay* on greased cooking sheet. Place in oven preheated to 375º approximately 15 minutes.
*For a real country flavor sop both sides of the biscuit in bacon grease before putting on cookie sheet.

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Cast-Iron Corn Bread

1 c. flour
4 tsp. baking powder (to be more authentic use 2 tsp. baking soda and 2
tsp. cream of tartar: baking powder was not invented until after the
War) 3 tbs. sugar
1 tsp. salt
1 c. cornmeal (white is better)
2 eggs beaten hard
1/4 c. bacon drippings
1 c milk or buttermilk Heat oven REAL hot (425 degrees). Rub some bacon grease over bottom and
sides of cast-iron skillet and put in oven. Mix flour, rising agents,
sugar and salt; add cornmeal and stir with fork to blend. Add eggs,
bacon drippings and milk and stir just to moisten batter and break up
most lumps. Remove VERY hot skillet from oven, pour in batter, and put
back in to bake until nicely browned, about 20-25 minutes.


To Fry Chickens (From Domestic Cookery by Elizabeth E. Ley printed 1856)

After cutting up the chickens, wash and drain them; season them with salt and pepper; rub each piece in flour, and drop them separately in a frying pan or dutch-oven of hot lard; when brown, turn the other side to fry; make a thickening of rich milk, flour a piece of butter, salt, and chopped parsley; take up the chicken on a dish; pour a little water in the pan to keep the gravy from being too thick; put in the thickening, stir it and let it boil a few minutes; then pour it over the chicken.

Chicken Bog   

Cover a 3 lb. fryer with water adding 2 stalks of celery, 1 medium onion quartered, 2 carrots quartered, tablespoon of salt, and tablespoon of peppercorns in large Dutch oven. Bring to a boil reduce to a slow boil and cook for 75 minutes. Skim off foam that forms at top.
Break down and brown 1 lb. of Jimmy Dean hot sausage in large skillet, add medium chopped onion to sausage and cook till translucent. Add 2 large cloves of chopped garlic to sausage and onion mixture and sauté for another 2 minutes. Take off heat and set aside.
After chicken is cooked remove everything from Dutch oven allow cooling in a large enough bowls reserving broth.
In Dutch oven add 3 cups of the broth and 1 ½ cup of long grain white rice. Bring to a boil then reduce to low, cover Dutch oven. Fork rice after it is done add sausage mixture to rice in Dutch oven.
Pick chicken off bones shred and add to Dutch oven. Mix the chicken, sausage mixture and rice together and test for seasonings. Some variations use a ½ cup of jalapeño or add smoked sausage links cut in ½ inch pieces instead of bulk sausage.

Chicken Pie (From Domestic Cookery by Elizabeth E. Ley printed 1856)

Cut up the chickens, and if they are old, boil them fifteen minutes in a little water, which save to put in the pie; make a paste like common pie crust, and put it round your pan, or dish; lay in the chicken, dust flour over, and put in butter, pepper, and salt; cover them with water, roll out the top crust quite thick, and close the pie round the edge; make an opening in the middle with a knife; let it bake rather more than an hour. If you warm a pie over for the next day, pour off the gravy and warm it separately, and add it to the pie.

Pot Pie (From Domestic Cookery by Elizabeth E. Ley printed 1856)

Cut up two large chickens; grease your pot, or dutch-oven, with lard; roll out crust enough to cover the bottom, or it will burn before pie is done. As you put in the pieces of chicken, strew in flour, salt, and pepper, some pieces of the crust rolled thin, and a few potatoes; cover this with water, and put on a covering of paste, with a slit cut in the middle; let it cook slowly for about two hours; have hot water in a tea kettle, and if it should be dry up too much, pour some in; just before you dish it, add a little parsley and thyme.
Veal, lamb and pork pies, may be made in the same way. If you like more top crust, cook it in a dutch-oven; and when the first crust is done, take it off in a pan and set it near the fire, and cover the pie again with dough.

Giblet Pie and Soup (From Domestic Cookery by Elizabeth E. Ley printed 1856)

If you can get livers and gizzards from market, you can have a very nice pie made, the same as chicken pie, or soup with dumplings made of mild, egg and flour, beaten together, and dropped in when the soup is nearly done, and season it with parsley, pepper, and salt.

Chicken Stewed with New Corn (From Domestic Cookery by Elizabeth E. Ley printed 1856)

Cut up the chickens as for pies; season them well; have green corn cut off the cob; put a layer of chicken in the bottom of a stew pan, and a layer of corn, and so till you fill all in; sprinkle with salt, pepper and parsley, and put a piece of butter in; cover it with water, and put on a crust, with slits cut in it; let it boil an hour; when done, lay the crust in a deep dish; dip out the chicken and corn, and put it on the crust; stir in the gravy a thickening of milk and flour; when it boils up, pour it in with the corn and chicken. Chicken and corn boiled together in a pot, make very nice soup, with dumplings.

Chicken Soup (From Domestic Cookery by Elizabeth E. Ley printed 1856)

Cut up the chicken; cut each joint, and let it boil and hour; make dumplings of a pint of milk, an egg, a little salt and flour, stirred in till quite stiff; drop this in, a spoonful at a time, while it is boiling; stir in a little thickening, with enough pepper, salt and parsley, to season the whole; let it boil a few minutes longer, and take it up in a tureen. Chopped celery is a great improvement to chicken soup; and new corn, cut it off the cob, and put in when it is half done, gives it a very nice flavor.

Corn Fritters (From Domestic Cookery by Elizabeth E. Ley printed 1856)

Cut the corn through the grain, and with a knife scrape the pulp from the cob, or grate it with a course grater, and to about a quart of the pulp, add two eggs beaten, two table-spoonsful of flour, a little salt and pepper, and a portion of thin cream, or new milk; beat the whole together; have the butter or lard hot in the pan, and put a large spoonful in at a time, and fry brown, turning each fritter separately; this makes an agreeable relish for breakfast, or a good side dish at dinner.

Baked Corn

2 Tbsp butter
1 1/2 tsp flour
1 cup milk
2 cups cooked corn
1 Tbsp sugar
1 tsp salt
1/8 tsp pepper
2 eggs
Melt butter, add flour and mix well. Add milk gradually and bring to the boiling point, stirring constantly. Add corn, salt and pepper and heat thoroughly. Remove from fire, add well beaten eggs and pour in a greased baking dish. Bake in a moderate oven, 350 deg.F. for 25 min.

Cracklin' Bread

3/4 lb salt pork, rind removed, diced
2 c. cornmeal, yellow
1 tsp. salt
1 c. boiling water
1/2 tsp. baking soda
3/4 c. buttermilk Heat oven until very hot (450 degrees F). While this is heating put salt
pork in heavy skillet and cook at medium until fat is rendered and meat
bits are crispy. Pour fat through clean cloth into container for other
use. Put cloth, which has caught the cracklin' meat bits, aside to cool
a bit. Mix cornmeal, salt, and 3 tbs. of the rendered fat in bowl. Pour
in boiling water all at once and stir to moisten ingredients. Mix baking
soda with buttermilk and add to bowl, stirring well. Finally, stir in
cracklinís. Pour batter into greased skillet and pat down level. Bake
until brown and done, about 25 minutes.

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Dutch Oven Loaf (From Domestic Cookery by Elizabeth E. Ley printed 1856)

If you wish to make a large loaf, it will take three pints of water, more than half a tea-cup of yeast, and two spoonsful of salt; when the rising is light, knead it up, have the dutch-oven greased; put it in, and set it near the fire, but not so near that it will scald. When it rises so as to crack the top, set the oven on coals; have the lid hot, cut the loaf slightly across the top, dividing it in four; stick it with a fork and put the lid on; when it is on a few minutes, see that it does not bake too fast; it should have but little heat at the bottom, and the coals on the top should be renewed frequenlty; turn the oven round occasionally.
If baked slowly, it will take an hour and a half; when done, wrap it in a large cloth till it gets cold.

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Molasses Gingerbread 4 lb. flour
8 oz. lard
8 oz. butter
1 pint molasses
1 gill milk
1 tsp. ginger
1 tsp. saleratus (or can substitute 1/2 tsp. baking soda and 1/2 tsp.
cream of tartar, or 1 tsp. baking powder)
Stir all together. Bake in shallow pan 20 or 30 minutes

Gumbo Soup (From Domestic Cookery by Elizabeth E. Ley printed 1856)

Take two pounds fresh beef; put this in a dinner-pot, with two gallons of water; after boiling two hours, throw in a quarter of a peck of okra, cut into small slices, and about a quart of ripe tomatoes, peeled and cut up; slice four or five large onions; fry them brown, and dust in while they are frying from your dredge-box, several spoonsful of flour; add these, with pepper, salt and parsley, or other herbs, to your taste, about an hour before the soup is finished; it will require six hours moderate boiling.

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Hardtack (Civil War Food Gettysburg National Military Park Kidzpage)

2 cups of flour
1/2 to 3/4 cup water
1 tablespoon of Crisco or vegetable fat
6 pinches of salt
Mix the ingredients together into a stiff batter, knead several times, and spread the dough out flat to a thickness of 1/2 inch on a non-greased cookie sheet. Bake for one-half an hour at 400 degrees. Remove from oven, cut dough into 3-inch squares, and punch four rows of holes, four holes per row into the dough. Turn dough over, return to the oven and bake another one-half hour. Turn oven off and leave the door closed. Leave the hardtack in the oven until cool. Remove and enjoy!

Hoe Cake

2 c. cornmeal
1 tsp. salt
1 c. boiling water
1/4 c. bacon drippings Mix cornmeal and salt. Slowly pour boiling water into meal, stirring
constantly. Mix till thick and let cool; divide into 8 equal parts. Pat
each piece into a flat cake about 3 inches across. They will keep like
this for some time. When ready to cook, heat up fry pan and add bacon
drippings; add cakes and cook about 5 minutes on each side or until
golden brown. Despite the name, it is not required that they be cooked
on the flat side of a hoe, which is good considering how few soldiers
probably carried hoes around with them.

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David & Tammie's Sugar Cured Venison Jerky (submitted by David & Tammie Bowers)

This is the recipe for the Jerky we provided at the Battle of Columbia. You can substitute beef for venison if you wish. I prefer to freeze the venison and cut it in very thin (approx. 1/4 inch) slices using a sharp fillet knife. Cut in widths of 1 to 2 inches and 6 to 10 inches long. Put in a large glass mixing bowl and add sugar a little at a time. Be sure to mix well. Mix brown sugar and all other spices and mix well together. Put in refrigerator for 24 hours. Remove, drain and blot with paper towels. Place on oven racks. You may want to line bottom of oven with tin foil to catch excess drippings. Cook at a maximum of 150 F until dry, but still flexible. Don't over cook. You can also use a dehydrator. It takes approximately 8 hours in an oven. Place in zip lock bags and store in refrigerator. Will last at least 4 months.

5 lb Venison Roast             1 cup soy sauce
1 ½ cup sugar                     ¾ oz liquid smoke
3 tsp brown sugar              1 tsp garlic
4 tsp salt                            1tsp black pepper
¼ cup vinegar

Johnnie Cake (Civil War Food Gettysburg National Military Park Kidzpage)

two cups of cornmeal
2/3 cup of milk
2 tablespoons vegetable oil
2 teaspoon baking soda
1/2 teaspoon of salt
Mix ingredients into a stiff batter and form eight biscuit-sized "dodgers". Bake on a lightly greased sheet at 350 degrees for twenty to twenty five minutes or until brown. Or spoon the batter into hot cooking oil in a frying pan over a low flame. Remove the corn dodgers and let cool on a paper towel, spread with a little butter or molasses, and you have a real southern treat!

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Pulled Pork Shoulder and Collard Greens 

Pork Shoulder
Trim fat and rinse a 4 lb. fresh pork shoulder and pat dry. Sprinkle a teaspoon of liquid smoke on meat and rub it in. Liberally sprinkle with ground red pepper. Place meat in a dry crock pot and cook for almost 10 hours. (There will be plenty of liquid in the bottom of pot when you finish.)
In a small saucepan, combine 1 tsp. cayenne pepper and 1 cup cider vinegar. Bring to a boil. After pulling the pork meat add salt and the vinegar mixture to taste. Put back in crock pot and keep warm until ready to serve.
Be careful and select the most tender big leaves from 2 bunches of collard greens. Inspect and wash greens well. Snip off the tough stems. Then cut the leaves crosswise, about an inch wide and wash again.
Put 1 cup of chicken stock and washed collard greens, 1/2 c. onions, chopped, 1 tsp. black pepper, 1 tsp. salt  in large dutch oven and let simmer for an hour or until collards are tender.
Stir in 1 cup of pulled pork and cook for 15 more minutes.
Serve with corn bread.

Pea Soup (From Domestic Cookery by Elizabeth E. Ley printed 1856)

Leave a pint of peas in the pot, with the water they were boiled in; make a thickening of flour, milk and butter, seasoned with salt, pepper, parsley and thyme; toast two or three slices bread, cut it up in the tureen; and when the soup has boiled about ten minutes, pour it over.

Pumpkin or Squash Pie
When made for the family, this pie was often made with 1 egg to a quart of milk. The feeling was, the more eggs, the better the pie. So some used 1 egg for each gill of milk for company dessert.
Pumpkin or squash 2 tea-spoonfuls salt
3 eggs 2 great spoonfuls sifted cinnamon
1 quart milk 1 great spoonful ginger
Molasses or sugar Grated lemon peel (optional)
Take out the seeds and pare the pumpkin or squash before stewing but do not scrape the inside. The part nearest the seed is the sweetest part of the squash. Stew pumpkin and strain through a sieve or colander (or beat with mixer).
Stir the stewed pumpkin or squash into the milk beaten with eggs until it is as thick as you can stir it round rapidly and easily. To make the pie richer for company, make it thinner and add another egg. A decent pie can be made with only one egg to a quart of milk for everyday. Sweeten to taste with molasses or sugar. Some pumpkins require more sweetening than others. Ginger alone will be enough for spice if you use enough. A little grated lemon peel is nice.
Put in paste (pastry) shell. Bake without top crust for 40-50 minutes in moderate oven (350F), or longer if very deep.

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Veal Hash (From Domestic Cookery by Elizabeth E. Ley printed 1856)

Take the lights, heart and some of the liver; boil them in a pint of water; when done, take them out and chop them fine; season it with salt, pepper and a little sweet marjoram; put it back in the pot, and thicken it with butter and flour; let it boil a few minutes, and dash it with tureen.

Vegetable Soup (From Domestic Cookery by Elizabeth E. Ley printed 1856)

Take an onion, a turnip, two pared potatoes, a carrot, a head of celery; boil them in three pints of water till the vegetables are cooked; add a little salt; have a slice of bread toasted and buttered, put it into a bowl, and pour the soup over it. Tomatoes when in season form an agreeable addition.

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